Automobile Engineering By Vijayaraghavan.epub
Abstract:In recent years, global automotive industries are going through a significant revolution from traditional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) to electric vehicles (EVs) for CO2 emission reduction. Very similarly, the aviation industry is developing towards more electric aircraft (MEA) in response to the reduction in global CO2 emission. To promote this technology revolution and performance advancement, plenty of electronic devices with high heat flux are implemented on board automobiles and aircraft. To cope with the thermal challenges of electronics, in addition to developing wide bandgap (WBG) semiconductors with satisfactory electric and thermal performance, providing proper thermal management solutions may be a much more cost-effective way at present. This paper provides an overview of the thermal management technologies for electronics used in automobiles and aircraft. Meanwhile, the active methods include forced air cooling, indirect contact cold plate cooling, direct contact baseplate cooling, jet impingement, spray cooling, and so on. The passive methods include the use of various heat pipes and PCMs. The features, thermal performance, and development tendency of these active and passive thermal management technologies are reviewed in detail. Moreover, the environmental influences introduced by vibrations, shock, acceleration, and so on, on the thermal performance and reliability of the TMS are specially emphasized and discussed in detail, which are usually neglected in normal operating conditions. Eventually, the possible future directions are discussed, aiming to serve as a reference guide for engineers and promote the advancement of the next-generation electronics TMS in automobile and aircraft applications.Keywords: thermal management; automobile; aircraft; active cooling; passive cooling; environmental influences
Automobile Engineering By Vijayaraghavan.epub
Since the development of antibody-production techniques, a number of immunoglobulins have been developed on a large scale using conventional methods. Hybridoma technology opened a new horizon in the production of antibodies against target antigens of infectious pathogens, malignant diseases including autoimmune disorders, and numerous potent toxins. However, these clinical humanized or chimeric murine antibodies have several limitations and complexities. Therefore, to overcome these difficulties, recent advances in genetic engineering techniques and phage display technique have allowed the production of highly specific recombinant antibodies. These engineered antibodies have been constructed in the hunt for novel therapeutic drugs equipped with enhanced immunoprotective abilities, such as engaging immune effector functions, effective development of fusion proteins, efficient tumor and tissue penetration, and high-affinity antibodies directed against conserved targets. Advanced antibody engineering techniques have extensive applications in the fields of immunology, biotechnology, diagnostics, and therapeutic medicines. However, there is limited knowledge regarding dynamic antibody development approaches. Therefore, this review extends beyond our understanding of conventional polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Furthermore, recent advances in antibody engineering techniques together with antibody fragments, display technologies, immunomodulation, and broad applications of antibodies are discussed to enhance innovative antibody production in pursuit of a healthier future for humans.
The hydrogen production from the partial oxidation of hydrocarbon using catalysts has been utilized in commercial applications and automobile fuel cells      . The effect of addition ruthenium (Ru) on the molybdenum (Mo) catalysts has been investigated for the production of syngas from methane (CH4) via partial oxidation process  . The principles of (CPO) are illustrated in Figure 4.
This book presents the basic concepts, principles and applications of the principles in analyzing real life problems in an interactive manner. The book covers the syllabus of all universities and engineering colleges and can be used as a primary text or a supplement to any text book on thermodynamics for undergraduate students of all branches of engineering. It can also be used as a reference book by graduate students and practicing engineers. Psychrometry and chemical thermodynamics, Jacobian method of deriving thermodynamic relations in addition to the conventional partial differentials method are presented and illustrated through several examples. Sufficient thermodynamic property data tables are appended. Contents: Basic Concepts / Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics / Properties of Simple Compressible Fluids / First Law of Thermodynamics and its Application / Second Law of Thermodynamics / Thermodynamic Potentials and Availability / Thermodynamic Relations / Power and Refrigeration Cycles / Non-reacting Gas Mixtures and Psychrometry / Combustion and Chemical Thermodynamics / Appendices / Nomenclature / Index. 076b4e4f54