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Aslan Korolev
Aslan Korolev

The Universal History Of Computing: From The Ab...


As the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, Haiti is most often discussed in terms of its uncertain future. On Nov. 14 at a French studies workshop, "History and the Experience of Haiti," professors and students in the A.D. White House looked at Haiti in a different light -- its distinctive past and how its history relates to universal history -- the relationships of histories throughout the world.




The Universal History of Computing: From the Ab...


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"Haiti is a wonderful case for rethinking universal history," said Laurent Dubreuil, professor of Romance studies and comparative literature and director of French studies, who organized the workshop and said it was "a perfect opportunity to bridge several disciplines, notably political science, history and literature." He analyzed the topics of anachronism and postcolonialism, in part by comparing the work of Haitian scholar Demesvar Delorme in the 1870s with postcolonial theory.


At the end of the workshop, a panel discussion with Buck-Morss, Dubreuil, Gerard Aching, professor of Spanish, and moderator Natalie Melas, associate professor of comparative literature, all from Cornell, drew on audience questions. These included ways Haiti can preserve its past despite very limited national resources for museums or monuments; the role of nationalism in shaping the country's history; and the limitedness of Haiti's historical records.


In both her lecture and the subsequent panel discussion, Buck-Morss also referenced a particular artwork from an international project she took part in as a metaphor for how the history of Haiti relates to countries' histories around the world. Mexican artist Gustavo Artigas, she said, assembled two inner-city San Diego basketball teams and two inner-city Tijuana soccer teams to play their respective games on the same court at the same time. This, she said, represents an important way of thinking about universal history. The way the games played out simultaneously but with little interaction, she noted, represents how one can view the relationship of national histories, such as the history of Haiti with respect to the rest of the world's. Discussion also focused on the importance of studying the experience of Haiti. We have invested so much in understanding the past that we cannot move forward without it, said Buck-Morss, and it organizes our knowledge at the university.


At the beginning of 1950, John Von Neumann and Alan Turing did not create the term AI but were the founding fathers of the technology behind it: they made the transition from computers to 19th century decimal logic (which thus dealt with values from 0 to 9) and machines to binary logic (which rely on Boolean algebra, dealing with more or less important chains of 0 or 1). The two researchers thus formalized the architecture of our contemporary computers and demonstrated that it was a universal machine, capable of executing what is programmed. Turing, on the other hand, raised the question of the possible intelligence of a machine for the first time in his famous 1950 article "Computing Machinery and Intelligence" and described a "game of imitation", where a human should be able to distinguish in a teletype dialogue whether he is talking to a man or a machine. However controversial this article may be (this "Turing test" does not appear to qualify for many experts), it will often be cited as being at the source of the questioning of the boundary between the human and the machine.


The success in May 1997 of Deep Blue (IBM's expert system) at the chess game against Garry Kasparov fulfilled Herbert Simon's 1957 prophecy 30 years later but did not support the financing and development of this form of AI. The operation of Deep Blue was based on a systematic brute force algorithm, where all possible moves were evaluated and weighted. The defeat of the human remained very symbolic in the history but Deep Blue had in reality only managed to treat a very limited perimeter (that of the rules of the chess game), very far from the capacity to model the complexity of the world.


One consequence of this unusual history is that the final bill never received a hearing from any policy committee of the California Legislature. There is but a single, substantive committee report on the bill (authored by a consultant to the Assembly Committee on Labor and Employment). It states that the purpose of the bill is to expand the overtime exemption for computer professionals if the employee's primary duty is exempt work and the employee:


In 10th grade English, students compare fiction and nonfiction texts, with an emphasis on nonfiction. Students analyze the cultural and social function and universal themes of fictional texts from different cultures. Students analyze and synthesize information from nonfiction texts. Students use context, structure, and connotations to determine meanings of complex words and phrases. This course engages students in a recursive writing process, with an emphasis on analysis and persuasion while showing relationships among claims, reasons, and evidence from reliable sources. Students create media messages and analyze the cause and effect relationships between mass media coverage and public opinion trends. Students use multimodal tools to create presentations both independently and in collaborative groups. Students use research skills to present information gathered from diverse sources, identify misconceptions and possible bias, and credit sources.


In eleventh-grade English, students analyze and evaluate relationships among American literature, history, and culture, including contributions of other cultures. Students conduct comparative analyses of multiple texts that address the same topic to determine how authors reach similar or different conclusions. Students use context, structure, and connotations to determine meanings of complex words and phrases. This course engages students in a recursive writing process, with an emphasis on persuasion/argumentation for multiple audiences and purposes. Students create media messages and analyze the cause and effect relationships between mass media coverage and public opinion trends. Students produce a research product, such as a multimodal presentation, that addresses alternative perspectives, synthesizes information from primary and secondary sources, and maintains ethical and legal guidelines for gathering and using information. During this course, students take the End of Course Reading and Writing SOL assessments.


In twelfth-grade English, students critically analyze and evaluate relationships among British literature, history, and other cultures. Students review multiple texts to identify and evaluate resources to make decisions and solve problems. Students use context, structure, and connotations to determine meanings of complex words and phrases. This course engages students in a recursive writing process with an emphasis on persuasion/argumentation to a standard acceptable to both the workplace and to postsecondary education. Students create media messages and analyze the cause and effect relationships between mass media coverage and public opinion trends. Students produce a research product, such as a multimodal presentation, that addresses alternative perspectives, synthesizes information from primary and secondary sources, and maintains ethical and legal guidelines for gathering and using information.


The content of "Corps" is designed to integrate and build upon concepts and skills from Company level class. Students increase their range of physical skills through the disciplined study of dance technique. Students also develop performance and production skills. Students continue to expand their appreciation of the dance arts by further study of dance history and its contribution to society. Students are introduced to the diversity that exists within the art form and their personal aesthetic. Students continue to develop their dance portfolios.


3D Sculpture I is a hands-on course that allows students to develop technique and knowledge of three-dimensional processes along with creative problem-solving skills. Through the study of the elements of art and principles of design, students will learn to use and arrange three-dimensional media in an expressive way. Students will explore the history of sculpture from representational to non-objective styles.


The AP Spanish Literature course is designed to be comparable to a third-year college/university course on Peninsular and Hispanic literature. The course will guide students to acquire sufficient proficiency in Spanish language to read, understand, and discuss selected works from both Peninsular and Hispanic literature. Throughout the course students will do close readings from all genres, including poetry, that they will analyze orally and in writing. They will also compose expository essays on related topics. The critical reading of literature develops an understanding not only of linguistic complexity and cultural identity, but also of certain universal human truths. The student will learn and use some practical and necessary strategies to include expressing his/her ideas through timed writings, identifying the key features and elements of a text, detecting themes, comparing and contrasting, composing one's thoughts, writing an outline, brainstorming in small groups, and fine-tuning language skills. These skills of critical thinking and writing in Spanish will serve the students not only in their college years, but also in their chosen careers. Students are required to take the AP Language Examination which is administered in May.


This is a survey of world history to 1500 with a concentration on developing historical thinking skills and geographical analysis. Course topics include: early development of humankind from the Paleolithic Era to the agricultural revolution, ancient river valley civilizations, early civilizations in Persia, India, and China, influence of Greece and Rome in the development of Western civilization, the Byzantine Empire and Russia, early Islamic civilization, Western Europe in the Middle Ages, Empires of the Eastern Hemisphere, major civilizations of the Western Hemisphere (Mayan, Aztec, Incan), late medieval developments, and the Renaissance in Europe. This course has an associated Standards of Learning (SOL) test. Students will participate in these tests only when they have not yet earned sufficient credit for graduation and/or satisfied federal testing requirements. 041b061a72


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